A Case Report on Carcinoid Tumours
Carcinoid tumours arise from neuroendocrine cells and are classified based on their site of origin embryonically. This, therefore, groups carcinoids according to foregut (stomach, bronchus and lungs), midgut (proximal large bowel, appendix and small intestine) and hind gut (rectum or distal colon) (Ramage et al., 2005). They have a high metastatic ability but the most commonly affected site is the appendix with the ileum being the third most affected site (Strosberg et al., 2008). It is usually found in patients aged 50-60 years and apart from symptoms associated with the tumour, the signs and symptoms may include flushing, abdominal pain, valvular heart lesions and diarrhoea. Also the aetiology is unknown and diagnosis usually occurs as a result of unrelated investigations and procedures (Taal and Visser, 2004). Diagnosis based on laboratory tests relies on the presence of biomarkers such as Chromoganin A, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid [5-HIAA] and serotonin in the patient’s urine (Seregni et al., 2001). Endoscopic procedures and imaging studies such as angiography, computed tomography scans and radiography are useful in locating tumour as well as metastasis (Vinik et al 2010).